Giotto di Bondone (c.1266-1337) ~ Birth of Christ (detail) ~ c.1303/05 ~ Mary and the Christ Child. Fresco, From a cycle with scenes from the lives of Mary and Christ. Padua, Arena Chapel (Cappella degli Scrovegni)
Sandro Boticelli's "The Birth of Venus", 1486, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Most paintings of women during the middle Ages symbolize the Virgin Mary, showing her in a demure appearance with an angelic smile and covered head. So Botticelli's depiction of a beautiful goddess, not only an obvious symbol of pagan mythology but also painted as a nude was groundbreaking.