Lietukis garage, Kovno, June 27, 1941. "In the first hours after the invasion . . . local antisemitic forces organized pogroms against the Jews. . . . It had to appear that the local population had taken the first steps on its own accord as a natural reaction to decades of Jewish oppression and recent Communist terror." -SS-Brigadier General Walther Stahlecker (report, October 15, 1941). Credit: Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltungen, Ludwigsburg; DÖW,Vienna; Yad Vashem, Jerusalem.