The Certosa di Pavia monastery complex in Lombardy, was built in 1396-1495. In 1782, the Carthusians monks were expelled by Emperor Joseph II of Austria, and were succeeded by Cistercians in 1784 and then by Carmelites in 1789. In 1810 the monastery was closed until the Carthusians reacquired it in 1843. In 1866 it was declared a National Monument and sequestrated by the Italian State, although some Benedictines resided there until 1880. Cistercians were readmitted to it in the 1960s.